Tutorial: Blender Basics – Modeling

  

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Welcome to the second tutorial of the Blender Basics tutorial series. In this tutorial we will be introducing modeling in Blender.

Blender Reference Manual – https://docs.blender.org/manual/ja/dev/index.html

Blender Hotkeys Reference – https://wiki.blender.org/index.php/Doc:2.4/Reference/Hotkeys/All

 

Creating Mesh Primitives

A common object type used in a 3D scene is a mesh. Blender comes with a number of primitive mesh shapes.

When you start Blender by default, you get this Cube which is a primitive mesh. Now let’s learn how to add primitives to the scene. First, right-click on the Cube and delete it using the delete shortcut – the X key.

If we want to add a primitive to the scene, we can do it by using the Create Tab here in the Tool Bar where we have a number of Mesh objects that we can add. We can get this exact same menu by hitting Shift A on the screen.

*Note: Make sure your cursor is over the 3D Viewport Window when you hit SHIFT A.

There are 10 standard primitive shapes in Blender: Plane, Cube, Circle, UV Sphere, Ico Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Torus, Grid, Monkey (who is called Suzanne)

In this case, we are just going to add in a Cube. If you scroll down to the bottom of the Tool Bar you will notice that you have various options for each mesh.

Editing Mesh Objects

The best and easiest way to start modeling in Blender is to simply start with a primitive mesh and then reshape it, add detail, and turn it into the model you want.

In order to edit any object, including primitives, we need to go into Edit Mode in Blender. By default we are in Object Mode, where we can select the actual objects in the scene. If we want to make changes to the cube we need to right-click on the Cube to select it (if it isn’t already selected) and then go into Edit Mode by using the TAB key.

Now let’s take a look at how to actually reshape and edit objects in Blender.

Let’s right-click on the cube to select it (if it isn’t already selected) and then delete it using the delete shortcut (X key). Now let’s add a simple sphere using the shortcut SHIFT A.

If we want to edit this sphere we need to right-click the sphere to select it (if it isn’t already selected) and then hit the TAB key to go into Edit Mode.

The easiest thing to do is just to select the single vertex and move it around. So if we want to make sure that we’re in Vertex Mode, we can hit CTRL TAB and select Vertex Mode. If we right-click on a vertex, you will see that a manipulator comes up and if we want to, we can move this manipulator which in turn moves the vertex. We can also select multiple vertices, so if we Shift Right-Click and select a couple vertices they still move along the normals.

There are also a couple of ways we can select multiple vertices. One way to do it is to use the Box (or Border) Tool via the shortcut of B LMB. You can also use the Circle Tool via the shortcut of C LMB. Another way to choose multiple vertices is using the Lasso Tool via the shortcut of CTRL LMB.

There is a potential problem with using these tools to select vertices. If you tumble around the back of the sphere you will notice that you haven’t selected the back-facing vertices. One way around this problem is to put the object into Wireframe Mode hitting the Z key and that toggles between shaded and wireframe. Another way around this problem is using the X-ray Mode. All you need to do is click on the Limited Selection button in the menu and you will then be able to see all the vertices.

We can do the same types of things with edges that we can with vertices. If we want to make sure that we’re in Edge Mode, we can hit CTRL TAB and select Edge Mode.

If I hold down the Shift key and ALT Right-Click, I can select multiple edges, so if we wanted to, we could manipulate these edges.

One thing that makes working in Edge Mode powerful is the ability to select Edge Loops. If we hit the ALT key and Right-Click, we actually select a whole ring of edges. It’s a very quick way of selecting multiple edges.

We can do the same types of things with faces that we can with vertices and edges. If we want to make sure that we’re in Face Mode, we can hit CTRL TAB and select Face Mode. In addition to scaling, rotating, and moving faces we can also Shrink/Fatten and Push/Pull.

Using ALT RMB, select a row of faces on the top of the UV Sphere. Then using SHIFT ALT select the remaining rows of faces on the top of the UV Sphere. When we get to the top of the UV Sphere we need to use the Circle Select (C LMB) to select the top faces. (RMB to lock in the selection)

In the Tool Bar click on the Shrink/Fatten button (under the Tools tab). When we move the mouse up and down you can shrink or fatten those rows. When we are satisfied with the modifications left-click and lock in the modifications.

Using ALT RMB, select a row of faces on the bottom of the UV Sphere. Then using SHIFT ALT select the remaining rows of faces on the bottom of the UV Sphere. When we get to the bottom of the UV Sphere we need to use the Circle Select (C LMB) to select the bottom faces. (RMB to lock in the selection)

In the Tool Bar click on the Push/Pull button (under the Tools tab). When we move the mouse up and down we can move each face in and out over its normal for those rows. When we are satisfied with the modifications left-click and lock in the modifications.

Two other hotkeys which are useful when modeling are the More and Less options. If you select a vertex, edge, or face you can easily select more or less based around your selection. For example, if we select a face on the sphere and hit CRTL NUMPAD PLUS we will expand the selection. If we then hit CTRL NUMPAD MINUS we will shrink the selection.

Proportional Editing

Proportional Editing allows us to edit more softly than simply selecting individual vertices, edges, or faces.

If we choose one vertex from the top of this sphere and begin moving it you will notice that I get a sharp edge without any sort of falloff. This is really an inefficient way of modeling. This is where Proportional Editing comes in.

We can turn Proportional Editing on and off either by using the button in the Widgets Strip or hitting the letter O.

Hit the letter O to turn on Proportional Editing. Then choose the top-most vertex and begin to move it. We can see how you now have a gradual falloff rather than a sharp edge.

We can also change the amount of area that we are affecting. Choose the top-most vertex and then the G key. We will notice a circle surrounding the cursor. Scrolling up and down with the Middle Mouse Button (MMB) (or using the Page Up and Page Down keys on the keyboard) will allow us to change the amount of area that we affect. Once we have the circle the size we want we just need to move the cursor. As we move the cursor we can continue to resize the area. Once we have finished the modification we just need to left-click to lock in the modification.

Sculpt Mode

Sculpt Mode in Blender is a way to do more organic modelling. In order to sculpt a bit more easily and take advantage of the sculpting tools it is best to have a dense model. In this demonstration we will be using a simple cube that has been subdivided multiple times.

Tab back into Object Mode and delete the UV Sphere using the X key. Using SHIFT A, add a Cube to the scene.

With the cube selected, hit TAB to go into Edit Mode. In the Tool Shelf choose Subdivide under the Add section then change the Number of Cuts (at the bottom of the panel) to 20. This will give a more dense mesh to sculpt on.

Now let’s change to Sculpt Mode. When we enter Sculpt Mode, notice that the cursor changes to a brush-based cursor. Now all we need to do is choose a face on the cube and left-click and drag. You will see that I am already sculpting. Now let’s undo that using CTRL Z and explore the sculpting tools.

At the top of this set of tools we have the various brushes that we can use in Sculpt Mode. The Radius is how we control the size of our brush. Using this option we can make our brush larger or smaller. If we hold down the F key we can also control the feather – or fall-off – of the brush by moving the mouse up and down. We also have options for Auto-smooth and Add and Subtract. Add means that we can pull out vertices whereas Subtract means we push the vertices in.

We also have a number of other options in Sculpt Mode. We can paint using a texture which is really handy for things like scales or even decorative items such as those found on buildings. We can choose a stroke method such as Space or Airbrush. Curve is basically affecting the feathering fall-off of the brush. Symmetry allows for the mirroring of the sculpting along any axis.

Extrusions

The Extrusion Tool is one of the most important tools used in any 3D modelling program. We can extrude faces, edges, or vertices.

Let’s go back to Object Mode.

First, let’s delete the standard Cube using the X key and then delete. Now let’s add a Cylinder using the shortcut SHIFT A > Mesh > Cylinder. Now we can begin extruding portions of the cylinder.

Let’s start by extruding a face. Make sure the Cylinder is selected and then hit the TAB key to go into Edit Mode. Once in Edit Mode hit CTRL TAB and go into Face Mode. Now, choose one face with the right-mouse-button (RMB).

In the Tool Shelf under the Add section you will notice two extrusion options – Extrude Region and Extrude Individual. If we only have a single face chosen, these two options work the same. So, if we choose Extrude Region and then move our mouse left and right you will notice that it extrudes that singular face. When you left-click you lock in that extrusion.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and then the A key to deselect everything. When multiple faces, edges, or vertices are chosen Extrude Region and Extrude Individual work differently.

Let’s SHIFT Right-Click three separate faces . Now when we select Extrude Region you see that the extrusion operates the same way as it did with only a single face selected. Again, left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and this time select Extrude Individual. Notice that the three faces are now extruding individually along their Normals. Again, left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and the A key to deselect everything. Extruding also works on vertices. Hit CTRL TAB and go into Vertex Mode. Using SHIFT Right-Click choose three vertices on the Cylinder and choose Extrude Region. This will simply create an edge that connects to the object. Left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and this time select Extrude Individual. Notice that the three vertices are now extruding individually along their Normals. Again, left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and the A key to deselect everything. Extruding also works on edges. Hit CTRL TAB and go into Edge Mode. Using SHIFT Right-Click choose three edges on the Cylinder and choose Extrude Region. This will simply create planes that connect to the object. Left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and this time select Extrude Individual. Notice that there is no difference between this and Extrude Region. Again, left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Let’s use CTRL Z to undo that extrusion and the A key to deselect everything. Now select the top-most Edge Loop by ALT Right-Clicking on a single edge and choose Extrude Region. This will allow us to create extra geometry at the top of the Cylinder. Left-clicking will lock that extrusion in place.

Smooth Shading

Let’s tab back into Object Mode and using the A key deselect all the objects. Place your 3D Cursor anywhere you want to add a mesh (by using the LMB). Then, using the shortcut SHIFT A > Mesh > UV Sphere, add a UV Sphere to the scene. If you look closely at the UV Sphere you will notice that it looks like a series of flat planes and doesn’t look smooth at all.

Let’s smooth the UV Sphere. Make sure you have the UV Sphere selected (Right-click) and then tab into Edit Mode. In the Tool Shelf click on the tab Shading/UVs to access the Shading options.

Using CTRL TAB, make sure you are in Face Select Mode. Using ALT RMB, select a row of faces on the top of the UV Sphere. Then using SHIFT ALT select the remaining rows of faces on the top of the UV Sphere. When we get to the top of the UV Sphere we need to use the Circle Select (C LMB) to select the top faces. RMB to lock in the selection then choose Smooth under the Faces section.

Using the A key, deselect the faces. As you tumble around (Middle Mouse Button – MMB) you can clearly see that the top-half of the UV Sphere is quite smooth compared to the lower-half.

Subdividing Meshes

Let’s tab back into Object Mode and using the A key deselect all the objects. Place your 3D Cursor anywhere you want to add a mesh. Then, using the shortcut SHIFT A > Mesh > Cube, add a Cube to the scene. If you look at the Cube you will notice that it has six flat faces. One way to add more detail to a Mesh is to subdivide it.

Let’s subdivide the Cube. Make sure you have the Cube selected (Right-click) and then tab into Edit Mode. In the Tool Shelf make sure to click on the Tools tab (if it isn’t already selected). Under the Add section click on Subdivide. Now we see options come up at the bottom of the Tool Shelf.

*Note: Once you click on the Mesh, the options at the bottom of the Tool Shelf disappear.

Notice that the Cube is already subdivided and we now have four faces on each side of the Cube. If we increase the number of cuts to two notice that we now have six faces on each side of the Cube. You can increase or decrease the number of cuts by using the arrows or clicking inside the field and typing in a number and hitting the TAB key.

We can also smooth out the edges by using the Smoothness option. If we change the Smoothness to 0.5 notice how the entire Cube is now looking more spherical.

Next we have the Quad Corner Type. We have the option of using Fan, Straight Cut, Path, or Inner Vertex. Fractal randomizes the vertices and Along Normal is used in conjunction with Fractal.

Subdividing Meshes is a great way to improve our modelling – for both organic and non-organic types of modelling.

Selecting Objects

We’ve already seen how to select an object by Right-clicking on it – be it a Mesh or simply a face, edge, or vertex. We can also select objects in the Outliner. If I wanted to select the Lamp for example, I would just click on Lamp in the Outliner and you will notice that now the Lamp is selected.

We can also select multiple objects by holding down the SHIFT key and Right-clicking. So, if we wanted to also select the Camera all we need to do is hold down out SHIFT key and Right-click on the Camera. You will notice that both objects are highlighted on the 3D Viewport and in the Outliner.

If we also select the Cube (SHIFT Right-Click), notice that the Cube is highlighted in a dark (and in this case a different) color. This shows us that the Cube was the last object selected.

*Note, in the default settings the selected objects would have an orange color.

To deselect an object we just need to hold down the SHIFT key and select the object. So let’s deselect the Cube and the Camera by SHIFT-Right-Clicking on each object.

A quick way to select everything in the scene is by using the A key and if you want to deselect everything in a scene you simply hit the A key again.

There are two other main ways of selecting objects in Blender – Box (or Border) Select and Circle Select.

Let’s tab back into Object Mode and add a UV Sphere to the scene by using the shortcut SHIFT A > Mesh > UV Sphere.

Use the A key to deselect everything. Once we hit the B key for Box (or Border) Select notice that we see crosshairs in the scene. All we need to do is left-click and drag over the UV Sphere to make a selection. If we hit the B key again and make another selection notice that the original selection remains selected.

Use the A key to deselect everything. If we hit the C key for Circle Select notice that we see a circular brush in the scene. All we need to do is left-click and drag over the UV Sphere to make a selection. Once the selection is made, simply hit the ESC key or right-click to lock in the selection. If we hit the C key again and make another selection notice that the original selection remains selected.

One nice thing about the Circle Select is that you can change the size of the Circle Select by either rolling the Middle Mouse Button (MMB) or using the Plus and Minus on the keypad. This allows for greater flexibility when making a selection.

Another handy selection tool is Inverse. If we hit CTRL I while we have some of the faces selected on the UV Sphere we will select all the other faces and deselect the original face selection.

Moving Objects

There are times when we need to move our objects around in 3D space. In order to do so we need to know about the axes in Blender. If we look in the lower-left corner of the 3D Viewport you will notice an icon which shows the axes. The Blue axis is the Z-Axis which is the vertical axis. The green axis is the Y-Axis and the red axis is the X-Axis.

The easiest way to move objects is with the Translate Manipulator.

Tab back into Object Mode and make sure the UV Sphere is selected (Right-click). If we want to quickly move the object along a specific axis we can constrain the object to a particular axis by using the Transform Gizmo. In order to move only along the X-Axis grab the red arrow and move the object. To move along the Y-Axis, grab the green arrow and move the object. Lastly, to move along the Z-Axis, grab the blue arrow and move the object.

Another way to move the UV Sphere along specific axes is to use the G key. If we want to move only along the X-Axis you simply hit the G key and then the X key and move the object. Notice that it is now constrained to the X-Axis. To move along the Y-Axis only hit the G key and then the Y key and move the object along the Y-Axis. To move along the Z-Axis only hit the G key and then the Z key and move the object along the Z-Axis.

Rotating Objects

There are also times when we need to rotate our objects. The easiest way to rotate objects is with the Rotate Manipulator. By using the Rotate Manipulator we can restrain the rotation to a specific axis. The red line constrains the rotation around the X-Axis. The green line constrains the rotation around the Y-Axis. The blue line constrains the rotation around the Z-Axis.

Another way to rotate the UV Sphere along specific axes is to use the R key. If we want to rotate only around the X-Axis you simply hit the R key and then the X key and rotate the object. Notice that it is now constrained to the X-Axis. To rotate along the Y-Axis only hit the R key and then the Y key and rotate the object around the Y-Axis. To rotate around the Z-Axis only hit the R key and then the Z key and rotate the object around the Z-Axis.

We can also rotate objects in degrees. All we need to do is hit the R key, then the axis (X, Y, or Z), then the number of degrees (for example, 90), and then the ENTER key.

Scaling Objects

There are also times when we need to scale our objects. The easiest way to scale objects is with the Scale Manipulator. By using the Scale Manipulator we can restrain the scale to a specific axis. The red line constrains the scale to the X-Axis. The green line constrains the scale of the Y-Axis. The blue line constrains the scale to the Z-Axis.

Another way to scale the UV Sphere along specific axes is to use the S key. If we want to scale only along the X-Axis you simply hit the S key and then the X key and scale the object. Notice that it is now constrained to the X-Axis. To scale along the Y-Axis only hit the S key and then the Y key and scale the object along the Y-Axis. To scale along the Z-Axis only hit the S key and then the Z key and scale the object along the Z-Axis.

We can also scale objects numerically. All we need to do is hit the S key, then the axis (X, Y, or Z), then the number (for example, 2), and then the ENTER key.

Using Snap

An easy option in order to move objects precisely in Blender is to use Snap.

First, let’s delete the UV Sphere and then add a Cube to the scene then making sure that the Cube is selected, and tab into Edit Mode.

The easiest way to Snap objects is to Snap to Grid. Choose the Snap option and move the Cube using the Translate Manipulator. Notice that the Cube snaps to the Grid.

We can also Snap faces, edges, and vertices. Use the shortcut CTRL TAB to go into Face Mode. Make sure Snap is activated and choose Face from the Snap Element list. Right-Click on the top face to choose it, and then pull it straight down along the Z-Axis. Notice that when you get close to the bottom face the top face snaps to it and it becomes a plane.

Now let’s undo that snapping procedure with CTRL Z. Use the shortcut CTRL TAB to go into Edge Mode. Make sure Snap is activated and choose Edge from the Snap Element list. Right-Click on front edge to choose it, and then pull it straight along the X-Axis. Notice that when you get close to the back edge the two edges snap together.

Now let’s undo that snapping procedure with CTRL Z. Use the shortcut CTRL TAB to go into Vertex Mode. Make sure Snap is activated and choose Vertex from the Snap Element list. Right-Click on top-front vertex to choose it, and then pull it straight along the X-Axis. Notice that when you get close to the back vertex the two vertices snap together.

Another option for snapping is to Snap an object to the 3D cursor. Use the LMB to place the 3D Cursor somewhere in the scene. Hit the A key to deselect everything and then hit the A key a second time to select the entire Cube. Use the shortcut SHIFT S and choose Selection to Cursor (Offset). This will move the entire Cube to the 3D cursor.

Modifiers

Modifiers, as opposed to the basic editing tools we’ve been using so far, are a lot more interactive. So let’s take a brief look at how modifiers help when modelling in Blender.

Tab back into Object Mode and delete the Meshes. Using SHIFT A, add a Cube to the scene.

Expand the Properties Panel so we can see all the tabs. Click on the tab with the little wrench to access the Object Modifiers tab. If we click on the Add Modifier button we will see a lot of Modifiers. Right now we will just look at how Modifiers work so let’s look at a simple modifier.

Make sure your Cube is selected and under Deform click on the Simple Deform modifier. Notice how the cube twists and deforms. Let’s look at the options that are common to all Modifiers.

The first thing we see is the name of the Modifier – in this case, Simple Deform. The first option with the camera icon turns the Modifier on and off in the Renderer. The second option with the eyeball icon turns the Modifier on and off in the 3D Viewport. The third modifier with the cube icon shows the Modifier when you are in Edit Mode. The last option with the triangle icon is used in Edit Mode to change the cage around the Modifier.

Hit the TAB key and go into Edit Mode. Notice there is a box around the cube. This is the cage. If we click the triangle icon we see that the cage now conforms to the deformed Cube mesh. Turn off the Cage option by clicking on the triangle and then hit TAB to return to Object Mode.

The two triangles next to the Cage icon move individual modifiers up and down in the stack and the “X” next to these triangles simply deletes the Modifier.

The Apply button applies the modifier to the Mesh. Once you have applied the modifier you cannot continue to make changes to it so only apply the modifier when you are done making changes to it. The Apply as Shape Key allows us to apply this Modifier as a Shape Key within the Shape Key stack. We will be going over Shape Keys in a later tutorial. We can also copy the modifier using the Copy button.

Now, let’s look at the options that are applicable to this Modifier.

We can see that we have different Modes available – Twist (the default), Bend, Taper, and Stretch. For now we will just leave the Twist Mode active. This Modifier has a Deform factor which is the angle at which the Mesh is deformed. The Limits option allows us to change where the twist starts and stops. We also have the option of locking the X-Axis or Y-Axis.

Let’s tab into Edit Mode and look at the other Modes available to us. Turn on the Cage option by clicking on the triangle icon. The Bend Mode allows us to bend the Mesh. The Taper Mode allows us to taper the Mesh. The Stretch Mode allows us to stretch and squash the Mesh.

Let’s say we want to have both a Twist and a Stretch on this Cube. We can easily do this by adding a second Simple Deform Modifier. We just go to the Add Modifier pull-down list and choose the Simple Deform Modifier. Now all we need to do is change the Mode of the top Modifier to Stretch.

Now we have two Modifiers affecting the Cube. If I wanted the Twist Mode to affect the Cube first all I need to do is switch the stacking order using the triangles.

Text

Now, let’s take a look at how to create text in Blender. Let’s start with a fresh file. Go to File > New > Reload Startup File.

We don’t need the Cube so right-click to select it (if it isn’t already selected) and then hit the X key and then Delete. Now we can add some Text using the short-cut Shift A > Text. Since we want to edit this Text, tab into Edit Mode.

If we tumble around for a better view we can see that a cursor is place at the end of the word. All we need to do is hit the Backspace key and type whatever we wish.

Let’s expand the Properties Panel and click on the icon that looks like an “F.” This will bring up the options for our text.

Resolution is how Blender will treat the U Direction of the text. The U Direction refers to control points for NURBS surfaces – which are similar to Edge Loops for Meshes. Fill determines the way a Curve is filled in when it is extruded and/or beveled. Under the Display option you will see an option for Fast Editing. When this box is checked Blender does not fill polygons while editing text.

Texturing is used for adding a texture to the Text. Geometry Modification allows for altering the space between the letters – in other words, it thickens or thins the letters. Let’s change the Offset to 0.015 and hit ENTER and we can see how the letters become thicker. We can also extrude the letters. If we change the Extrude to 0.05 and hit ENTER and then tumble our view we can see that we’ve added thickness to the letters. The Bevel option changes the size and resolution of the bevel. Let’s change the Depth to 0.015 and we can now see a slight bevel on the letters. Taper Object allows us to make a letter get thinner toward one end and Bevel Object allows us to give a letter a custom bevel.

We can also change the Font. In order to do this you will need to know where the Fonts are located on your machine. For PCs the Fonts are located in the Windows folder under Fonts (C:Windows/Fonts). For Macs the Fonts are located in the Library folder under Fonts (~/Library/Fonts/). For Linux the Fonts are located in the Library folder under Fonts (usr/lib/fonts).

In order to change the Font click on the Folder icon to the right of the Regular, Bold, Italic, and/or Bold & Italic options. Then, locate the Fonts folder, choose the Font and then click Open Font.

We also have the option to change the size of the Text or Shear the Text. We can use an Object Font which permits us to essentially make our own Font within Blender and we can place Text on a Curve. We can use Bold, Italic, Underline, and Small Caps to change the look of the Text.

The Paragraph section allows us to change the Horizontal and Vertical Alignment of the Text as well as the Spacing and Offset. The Text Boxes section allows us to distribute the text amongst rectangular areas within a single text object.

Booleans

Now, let’s take a look at how to use Booleans in Blender. Let’s start with a fresh file. Go to File > New > Reload Startup File.

Go into Orthographic Mode – 5 on the NumPad – and then go into Front View using the number 1 on the NumPad. Now we need to add another Mesh using the shortcut SHIFT A and adding a Cylinder. Use the red arrow to move the Cylinder along the X-Axis so it sits beside the Cube. Now SHIFT Right-Click to select the Cube along with the Cylinder. Now hit SHIFT D and ENTER to duplicate both Meshes and then move them to the side using the red arrow. Repeat this process one more time so we have three Cubes and three Cylinders.

The Boolean Modifier is used to cut away or add to another Mesh. Select the first Cylinder and move it so it intersects with the first Cube. Select the Cube and go to the Modifiers Panel and add a Boolean Modifier. In order for this to work we need to select the Object to be the effecter – in this case, the Cylinder. Under Object choose Cylinder. Now if we go into Wireframe Mode (Z) we can see that the Cylinder has intersected with the Cube. Now hit the A key to deselect everything.

Select the second Cylinder and move it so it intersects the second Cube. Select the second Cube and add a Boolean Modifier. This time we are going to change the Operation to Union and select Cylinder 001 under Object. Now we see that the Cube and the Cylinder have joined to form one Mesh. Now hit the A key to deselect everything.

Select the third Cylinder and move it above the third Cube. Using the shortcut S resize the Cylinder so it is about half the size. Now move the Cylinder so it intersects with the top of the third Cube. Select the third Cube and add a Boolean Modifier. This time we are going to change the Operation to Difference and select Cylinder 002 under Object. Once we hit Apply and move the Cylinder we can now see a hole cut out of the Cube.

 

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